Understanding Nationality: Differences Between Nationality, Ethnicity, and Citizenship

Ruby McKenzie
16 Min Read

What is nationality? Nationality is ascribed to individuals based on their connection with a particular nation, often established by birth within the country’s territory, descent from its citizens, or naturalization. It is a legal relationship between an individual and a state that bestows certain rights and obligations on both parties. Nationality typically entitles a person to the state’s protection, the right to vote or stand for public office, and the right to work and live in the country.

However, nationality extends beyond legal rights and responsibilities—it also often encompasses a shared cultural identity, including elements such as language, religion, traditions, and societal norms. It can significantly influence a person’s worldview, behaviors, and sense of belonging.

Nevertheless, nationality shouldn’t be confused with ethnicity or citizenship. While nationality can be a part of one’s ethnic identity, ethnicity primarily refers to a group sharing common cultural, linguistic, or ancestral traits. On the other hand, citizenship refers to the legal status of a person recognized under the custom or law of a sovereign state or local jurisdiction—though it often aligns with nationality, this is not always the case.

In our increasingly globalized world, the concept of nationality continues to evolve, highlighting the diverse and interconnected nature of modern societies.

Below, I’ve listed the nationality for several countries

  1. Afghanistan – Afghan
  2. Albania – Albanian
  3. Algeria – Algerian
  4. Andorra – Andorran
  5. Angola – Angolan
  6. Antigua and Barbuda – Antiguan, Barbudan
  7. Argentina – Argentine
  8. Armenia – Armenian
  9. Australia – Australian
  10. Austria – Austrian
  11. Azerbaijan – Azerbaijani
  12. Bahamas – Bahamian
  13. Bahrain – Bahraini
  14. Bangladesh – Bangladeshi
  15. Barbados – Barbadian
  16. Belarus – Belarusian
  17. Belgium – Belgian
  18. Belize – Belizean
  19. Benin – Beninese
  20. Bhutan – Bhutanese
  21. Bolivia – Bolivian
  22. Bosnia and Herzegovina – Bosnian, Herzegovinian
  23. Botswana – Motswana (pl. Batswana)
  24. Brazil – Brazilian
  25. Brunei – Bruneian
  26. Bulgaria – Bulgarian
  27. Burkina Faso – Burkinabe
  28. Burundi – Burundian
  29. Cabo Verde – Cape Verdean
  30. Cambodia – Cambodian
  31. Cameroon – Cameroonian
  32. Canada – Canadian
  33. Central African Republic – Central African
  34. Chad – Chadian
  35. Chile – Chilean
  36. China – Chinese
  37. Colombia – Colombian
  38. Comoros – Comorian
  39. Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) – Congolese
  40. Costa Rica – Costa Rican
  41. Croatia – Croatian
  42. Cuba – Cuban
  43. Cyprus – Cypriot
  44. Czechia (Czech Republic) – Czech
  45. Denmark – Danish
  46. Djibouti – Djiboutian
  47. Dominica – Dominican (Note: Different from Dominican Republic)
  48. Dominican Republic – Dominican
  49. East Timor (Timor-Leste) – East Timorese
  50. Ecuador – Ecuadorian
  51. Egypt – Egyptian
  52. El Salvador – Salvadoran
  53. Equatorial Guinea – Equatorial Guinean, Equatoguinean
  54. Eritrea – Eritrean
  55. Estonia – Estonian
  56. Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) – Swazi
  57. Ethiopia – Ethiopian
  58. Fiji – Fijian
  59. Finland – Finnish
  60. France – French
  61. Gabon – Gabonese
  62. Gambia – Gambian
  63. Georgia – Georgian
  64. Germany – German
  65. Ghana – Ghanaian
  66. Greece – Greek
  67. Grenada – Grenadian
  68. Guatemala – Guatemalan
  69. Guinea – Guinean
  70. Guinea-Bissau – Bissau-Guinean
  71. Guyana – Guyanese
  72. Haiti – Haitian
  73. Honduras – Honduran
  74. Hungary – Hungarian
  75. Iceland – Icelandic
  76. India – Indian
  77. Indonesia – Indonesian
  78. Iran – Iranian, Persian
  79. Iraq – Iraqi
  80. Ireland – Irish
  81. Israel – Israeli
  82. Italy – Italian
  83. Jamaica – Jamaican
  84. Japan – Japanese
  85. Jordan – Jordanian
  86. Kazakhstan – Kazakhstani
  87. Kenya – Kenyan
  88. Kiribati – I-Kiribati
  89. Korea (North Korea) – North Korean
  90. Korea (South Korea) – South Korean
  91. Kuwait – Kuwaiti
  92. Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz, Kyrgyzstani
  93. Laos – Lao, Laotian
  94. Latvia – Latvian
  95. Lebanon – Lebanese
  96. Lesotho – Mosotho (pl. Basotho)
  97. Liberia – Liberian
  98. Libya – Libyan
  99. Liechtenstein – Liechtensteiner
  100. Lithuania – Lithuanian
  101. Luxembourg – Luxembourger
  102. Madagascar – Malagasy
  103. Malawi – Malawian
  104. Malaysia – Malaysian
  105. Maldives – Maldivian
  106. Mali – Malian
  107. Malta – Maltese
  108. Marshall Islands – Marshallese
  109. Mauritania – Mauritanian
  110. Mauritius – Mauritian
  111. Mexico – Mexican
  112. Micronesia – Micronesian
  113. Moldova – Moldovan
  114. Monaco – Monacan, Monegasque
  115. Mongolia – Mongolian
  116. Montenegro – Montenegrin
  117. Morocco – Moroccan
  118. Mozambique – Mozambican
  119. Myanmar (formerly Burma) – Burmese
  120. Namibia – Namibian
  121. Nauru – Nauruan
  122. Nepal – Nepali
  123. Netherlands – Dutch
  124. New Zealand – New Zealander, Kiwi (informal)
  125. Nicaragua – Nicaraguan
  126. Niger – Nigerien
  127. Nigeria – Nigerian
  128. North Macedonia (formerly Macedonia) – Macedonian
  129. Norway – Norwegian
  130. Oman – Omani
  131. Pakistan – Pakistani
  132. Palau – Palauan
  133. Palestine – Palestinian
  134. Panama – Panamanian
  135. Papua New Guinea – Papua New Guinean, PNG
  136. Paraguay – Paraguayan
  137. Peru – Peruvian
  138. Philippines – Filipino (male or gender-neutral), Filipina (female)
  139. Poland – Polish
  140. Portugal – Portuguese
  141. Qatar – Qatari
  142. Romania – Romanian
  143. Russia – Russian
  144. Rwanda – Rwandan
  145. Saint Kitts and Nevis – Kittitian or Nevisian
  146. Saint Lucia – Saint Lucian
  147. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – Vincentian, Vincy
  148. Samoa – Samoan
  149. San Marino – Sammarinese
  150. Sao Tome and Principe – Sao Tomean
  151. Saudi Arabia – Saudi, Saudi Arabian
  152. Senegal – Senegalese
  153. Serbia – Serbian
  154. Seychelles – Seychellois
  155. Sierra Leone – Sierra Leonean
  156. Singapore – Singaporean
  157. Slovakia – Slovak
  158. Slovenia – Slovene or Slovenian
  159. Solomon Islands – Solomon Islander
  160. Somalia – Somali
  161. South Africa – South African
  162. South Sudan – South Sudanese
  163. Spain – Spanish
  164. Sri Lanka – Sri Lankan
  165. Sudan – Sudanese
  166. Suriname – Surinamese
  167. Sweden – Swedish
  168. Switzerland – Swiss
  169. Syria – Syrian
  170. Tajikistan – Tajikistani
  171. Tanzania – Tanzanian
  172. Thailand – Thai
  173. Togo – Togolese
  174. Tonga – Tongan
  175. Trinidad and Tobago – Trinidadian, Tobagonian
  176. Tunisia – Tunisian
  177. Turkey – Turkish
  178. Turkmenistan – Turkmen
  179. Tuvalu – Tuvaluan
  180. Uganda – Ugandan
  181. Ukraine – Ukrainian
  182. United Arab Emirates (UAE) – Emirati
  183. United Kingdom (UK) – British
  184. United States of America (USA) – American
  185. Uruguay – Uruguayan
  186. Uzbekistan – Uzbekistani, Uzbek
  187. Vanuatu – Ni-Vanuatu
  188. Vatican City (Holy See) – none; as an independent city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy, it has no ordinary citizens, only officials of the church
  189. Venezuela – Venezuelan
  190. Vietnam – Vietnamese
  191. Yemen – Yemeni
  192. Zambia – Zambian
  193. Zimbabwe – Zimbabwean

How to become a nationality of a particular country

To become a national of a particular country, there are usually several general paths, although the specific requirements and processes can vary greatly from one country to another. Here are four common routes:

  1. Birthright Citizenship: Some countries, such as the United States and Canada, offer birthright citizenship. This means that any child born within the country’s territories automatically becomes a citizen, regardless of the parents’ citizenship.
  2. Descent or Jus Sanguinis: This is when nationality is given to a person because they have a parent (or sometimes a grandparent) who is a national of that country. This is common in most countries around the world.
  3. Naturalization: This is the process by which a foreign citizen becomes a citizen of another country after fulfilling certain requirements. These typically include residing in the country for a certain number of years, proving good character, demonstrating knowledge of the language and culture, and pledging allegiance to the new country.
  4. Marriage: Many countries offer a path to citizenship for people who marry a citizen of that country. The specifics of this process can vary widely, and it typically includes a waiting period of several years.

Remember that immigration laws and citizenship requirements can be complex and often change, so it’s crucial to consult with a legal professional or visit the official immigration website of the specific country to get the most accurate and up-to-date information.

Is it possible to change your nationality to another country’s nationality?

Yes, it is possible to change your nationality to another country’s nationality. This is typically done through a process called naturalization. However, the specific requirements and procedures can vary significantly depending on the country.

In general, to apply for citizenship through naturalization, you would need to:

  • Reside in the country for a certain period: Most countries require that you live there for a certain number of years before you can apply for citizenship. The length of time varies by country.
  • Demonstrate proficiency in the language: Many countries require you to show that you can speak, read, and write in the country’s official language(s).
  • Pass a citizenship test: This usually involves demonstrating knowledge of the country’s history, culture, legal system, and other key aspects of life in the country.
  • Show good character: You may need to provide criminal background checks, character references, or other evidence to show that you are of good character.
  • Take an oath of allegiance: If your application is successful, you’ll usually need to take an oath of allegiance to your new country.

However, there are some key things to be aware of:

Not all countries allow dual citizenship. This means you may have to renounce your previous citizenship in order to become a citizen of another country.

The process can be expensive and time-consuming. It can take several years and involve a significant amount of paperwork.

Citizenship laws can change, so it’s important to seek legal advice and check the current laws of the country you wish to become a citizen of.

Finally, it’s worth noting that gaining citizenship in a new country is a serious decision that can have significant legal and personal implications. It’s not a process to be undertaken lightly, and it’s always recommended to consult with a legal professional to fully understand the implications.

Once you have acquired the nationality of a country, can it be terminated?

Yes, nationality can potentially be terminated or lost in certain circumstances, often referred to as loss of nationality or denaturalization. The specifics can vary depending on the country, but generally, there are several common ways this can occur:

  1. Voluntary renunciation: This is when a person intentionally gives up their nationality. This process often involves formal paperwork and possibly a fee. For example, in the United States, a person can voluntarily renounce their citizenship at a U.S. embassy or consulate in a foreign country.
  2. Naturalization in a foreign state: In some countries, voluntarily acquiring citizenship in another country can lead to the loss of the original citizenship, particularly in countries that do not allow dual citizenship.
  3. Fraud or misrepresentation in the naturalization process: If a person lied or omitted crucial information during the naturalization process, and this is later discovered, their citizenship can be revoked, often through a legal process.
  4. Service in foreign military or government: In some cases, serving in a foreign military or government can lead to loss of citizenship, especially if that service is associated with a country that the home country considers hostile.
  5. Criminal acts: Some very serious criminal acts, such as treason, might lead to loss of citizenship in certain jurisdictions.

The exact conditions under which nationality can be lost vary by country, so for the most accurate information, it’s necessary to consult the nationality laws of the specific country or seek advice from a legal expert in immigration law.

Please note that international law generally seeks to prevent statelessness, so the loss of nationality that leaves a person without citizenship of any country is a complex area with many legal restrictions and is not typically done without the person acquiring another nationality.

Synonyms of nationality

Here are some synonyms for the term “nationality”:

  1. Citizenship
  2. Country of Origin
  3. Homeland
  4. Native Land
  5. Birthplace
  6. Motherland
  7. Fatherland
  8. Home Country
  9. National Identity
  10. Nation

Please note, while these terms are similar, their use may differ depending on context. For example, ‘citizenship’ often refers specifically to the legal status of a person in relation to a country, while ‘nationality’ might be used more broadly to describe a person’s cultural or ethnic identity as well.

20 common sentences of nationality

  1. My nationality is Canadian, but I currently live in the United States.
  2. The company hires employees regardless of nationality.
  3. I’m proud of my Indian nationality.
  4. She holds dual nationality, both Italian and American.
  5. The diversity of nationalities in our school provides a rich cultural experience.
  6. He decided to change his nationality after living in France for many years.
  7. The census collects data on the different nationalities residing in the country.
  8. Despite our different nationalities, we share many common values.
  9. Nationality is just one aspect of a person’s identity.
  10. Her nationality is Greek, but she was born and raised in Australia.
  11. The team consists of players of various nationalities.
  12. It’s fascinating to learn about different nationalities and their cultures.
  13. I have two nationalities because my parents come from different countries.
  14. Sometimes nationality can influence our perspective on global events.
  15. His nationality is Russian, but he writes his novels in English.
  16. The film festival features directors of many different nationalities.
  17. She used her Italian nationality to apply for a job in Rome.
  18. Nationality does not define a person’s abilities or character.
  19. Your nationality can offer you certain rights and responsibilities in your country.
  20. He is applying for a change in nationality after marrying his German wife.

Source: Scopenew.comGuide

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